Agreement of Biak Na Bato

- March 05, 2022

According to historian Sonia M. Zaide, the agreement consisted of three parts: According to General Emilio Aguinaldo, who wrote in 1899, the main terms of the Pact of Biak-na-bato were:[4] However, some Filipino generals did not believe in the sincerity of the Spaniards. They refused to surrender their weapons. But the Te Deum was sung on January 23, 1898. With the Biak Na-Bato Pact, we revolutionaries have fulfilled our obligation to surrender our weapons, which, as everyone knows, exceed a thousand since they were published in the newspapers of Manila. But the captain, General Primo de Rivera, did not respect the agreement as faithfully as we did. The other payments were never paid; the brothers were not limited in their acts of tyranny and oppression, neither to expel them, nor to secularize religious orders; The requested reforms were not inaugurated, although the Te Deumwas were sung. This non-compliance by the Spanish authorities with the terms of the treaty caused me and my companions a great deal of misery, which quickly turned into irritation when I received a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Don Miguel Primo de Rivera (nephew and private secretary of the aforementioned General) telling me that I and my companions could never return to Manila. On November 18, 1897, Aguinaldo and several revolutionaries convened a citizens` assembly to draft an interim constitution for the Philippines, now known as the Biak na Bato Constitution.

The government was to be governed by a Supreme Council consisting of a president, a vice president and four secretaries authorized by the government. However, this plan never saw the light of day because Aguinaldo had begun negotiations with the Spanish government. The result was an agreement under which Filipino revolutionaries would go into exile in Hong Kong and surrender their weapons in exchange for financial compensation and pardons. The Biak-na-Bato Pact, as it was later called, was signed on December 15, 1897. The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 14, 1897, created an armistice between the Spanish government and the Philippine revolutionary government under Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution. The pact included the signing of three documents: a programme, an act of understanding and a financial provision. Pedro Paterno represented the revolutionaries and Governor Primo de Rivera represented the Spanish government at the signing of the pact. A charter based on the Cuban Constitution was also drafted by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho.

It was signed on November 1, 1897. The Constitution of Biak-na-Bato provided for the establishment of a Supreme Council that would serve as the supreme governing body of the Republic. He also highlighted some fundamental human rights such as freedom of religion, freedom of the press and the right to education. Emilio Aguinaldo and Mariano Trias were elected Chairmen of the Board of Governors and Vice-Chairmen respectively. The Pact of Biak-na-Bato Pedro Paterno, a Spaniard born in the Philippines, volunteered as a negotiator between Aguinaldo and Governor Primo de Rivera to end the clashes. Probo`s efforts bore fruit when he signed the pact on December 15, 1897, representing the revolutionaries and de Rivera representing the Spanish government. The leaders are: Emilio Aguinaldo President, Mariano Trias Vice-President, Antonio Montenegro Secretary, Baldomero Aguinaldo Treasurer and Emilio Riego de Dios. On the 23rd.

In December 1897, Generals Celestino Tejero and Ricardo Monet of the Spanish army arrived in Biak-na-Bato and became hostages of the rebels. A ceasefire was declared by both sides and an agreement was reached between Aguinaldo and the Spanish armed forces – that the Spanish government will grant autonomy to the Philippines in 3 years if Aguinaldo goes into exile and surrenders his weapons. In return, Aguinaldo received 800,000 Mexican pesos in compensation for the revolutionaries and an amnesty. After receiving a partial payment of 400,000 pesos, Aguinaldo went to Hong Kong on December 27, 1897. However, some Filipino generals did not believe in the sincerity of the Spaniards. They refused to surrender their weapons. Nevertheless, the Te Deum was sung on January 23, 1898. According to General Emilio Aguinaldo, who wrote in 1899, the main conditions of the Biak-na-Bato Pact were: [4] On September 9, 1899, the Biak-na-Bato Pact failed. In August 1897, Paterno proposed a peace based on Aguinaldo`s reforms and amnesty. Over the next few months, Paterno went back and forth between Manila and Biak-na-Bato with proposals and counter-proposals.

Paterno`s efforts led to a peace agreement, the so-called Biak na-Bato Pact. These were three documents, the first two signed on 14 December 1897 and the third on 15 December; Republic of Biak-na-Bato. [10] We revolutionaries fulfilled our obligation to surrender our weapons, which, as everyone knows, were more than 1000 after their publication in the newspapers of Manila. But the captain, General Primo de Rivera, did not respect the agreement as faithfully as we did. The other payments were never paid; the brothers were not limited in their acts of tyranny and oppression, neither to expel them, nor to secularize religious orders; The requested reforms were not inaugurated, although the Te Deumwas were sung. This non-compliance by the Spanish authorities with the terms of the treaty caused me and my companions a great deal of misery, which quickly turned into irritation when I received a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Don Miguel Primo de Rivera (nephew and private secretary of the aforementioned General) telling me that I and my companions could never return to Manila. The separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and its formation into an independent state with its own government called the Republic of the Philippines marked the end of the revolution in the existing war, which took place on September 24. Beginning of August 1896; That is why we, the representatives of the revolution, on its behalf and through the power of the Filipino people, who faithfully interpret their wishes and ambitions, unanimously adopted the following articles of the State Constitution at a meeting in Biac-na-bato on November 1, 1897. The Filipinos and Spaniards did not trust each other. As a result, even after Aguinaldo left the country, there were regular clashes between the two groups.

The Spaniards did not pay the full amount agreed. Continue until the Spanish-American War. [9] A charter based on the Cuban Constitution was also drafted by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho. Signed on November 18, 1897. The Constitution of Biak-na-Bato provided for the creation of a Supreme Council to serve as the supreme organ of the republican government. He also described some basic human rights such as freedom of religion, freedom of the press and the right to education. Emilio Aguinaldo and Mariano Trias were elected Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the Board of Governors respectively. .

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