General Collateral Repurchase Agreements- September 21, 2021
In a discount to the invoice due, the collateral mortgaged by the borrower (in cash) is not actually delivered to the lender in cash. On the contrary, it is placed by the borrower for the lender in an internal account (“on deposit”) for the duration of the trade. This has become rarer with the increase in the repo market, in particular due to the creation of centralised counterparties. Due to the high risk to the lender in cash, these are usually only dealt with large financially stable institutions. 2) Cash payable when buying back the stock In 2008, attention was drawn to a form known as Repo 105 after the collapse of Lehman, as it was alleged that repo 105s were used as an accountant`s trick to conceal the deterioration in Lehman`s financial health. Another controversial form of buyback order is the “internal repo”, first known in 2005. In 2011, it was proposed that the rest periods used to finance risky trades in European government bonds may have been the mechanism by which MF Global put at risk several hundred million dollars of client money before its bankruptcy in October 2011. A large part of the rest guarantee would have been obtained through the seizure of other customer security rights.   In July 2011, bankers and the financial press feared that the 2011 U.S. debt ceiling crisis would lead to default, which could lead to significant disruptions in the repo market. This is because treasuries are the most widely used collateral in the U.S.
repo market and a default would have downgraded the value of Treasuries, repo borrowers would have had to deposit much more collateral.  The same principle applies to rest. The longer the duration of the repo, the more likely it is that the value of the guarantees will vary before the redemption and that the activity will affect the buyer`s ability to honour the contract. In fact, counterparties` credit risk is the primary risk of rest. As with any loan, the creditor bears the risk that the debtor will not be able to repay the principal. Deposits act as a secured debt, which reduces the overall risk. And since the repo price exceeds the value of the guarantees, these agreements remain mutually beneficial for buyers and sellers. Since these forms of collateral are practically liquidity, there is greater market liquidity and repo operations are facilitated without the need to negotiate individual guarantee agreements between credit and credit dealers. In addition, subscribers benefit from a reduction in costs, as GCF trades are based on rates close to money market reference rates such as libor and EURIBOR.
Since GCF trades are often made between banks or banking institutions, the initiating party can expect the counterparty to have a significant volume of quality assets and can close the transaction without taking into account the details of the assets used for collateral. This is especially useful if the trade is opened and closed before the end of the day. The GSD also supports the possibility of replacing the securities used as collateral in a term repo that is currently on the GSD books. Participants transmit details about the substitution on their RTTM input and send collateral substitution requests via an automated system. (See “Repo Collateral Substitution Service”). When public central banks buy securities from private banks, they do so at a reduced interest rate called the repo rate. Like policy rates, repo rates are set by central banks. The repo interest rate system allows governments to control the money supply within economies by increasing or reducing available resources. A cut in repo rates encourages banks to sell securities for cash to the government. This increases the money supply available to the general economy. Conversely, by raising repo rates, central banks can effectively reduce the money supply by preventing banks from reselling these securities. The only difference is that in (i) the asset is sold (and then redeemed) while in (ii) the asset is rather mortgaged as collateral for a loan: in the Sell and Buy-Back transaction, ownership and holding of S to tN is transferred from an A to a B and in tF from B to A; Conversely, for the insured loan, only the property is temporarily transferred to B, while the property remains in A.