Vanguard Funds` Service Agreement

- October 13, 2021

Pursuant to Section 512(c)(2) of the Copyright Review Act, as enacted by the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Vanguard appoints an agent, as described below, to receive notifications of alleged copyright infringement by mail: Pamela Crocker, Senior Counsel, The Vanguard Group Inc., P.O. Box 2600, V-216, Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600. The designated copyright representative can also be reached by phone at (610) 669-6100 and by email at intellectualproperty@vanguard.com. Compliance with international laws/usage. You agree to comply with all laws, rules, codes and regulations of the country where you reside and the country from which you access this site. Any investment products and services referenced on this website will only be made available to persons established in the United States. This site is not considered an invitation or offer of an investment product or investment service to persons in a jurisdiction where such a request or offer would be illegal. Individuals residing outside the United States are encouraged to visit the Vanguard site for non-U.S. nationals.

Investors for more information on the products and services they have. Intellectual property. The contents contained on this site are the property of Vanguard and its external information providers or are licensed under vanguard and are protected by applicable copyrights, trademarks, service marks and/or other intellectual property rights. This content is provided exclusively for your personal, non-commercial use. Please read the following terms of use (“Terms of Use”) carefully before using the Vanguard.com Portal page and its local websites, including investor.vanguard.com, retirementplans.vanguard.com, institutional.vanguard.com and advisors.vanguard.com (together “Website”). By using this site, you agree to abide by and be bound by these Terms of Use. If you do not agree, do not use the website. Other agreements. If you are currently a Vanguard customer, these terms supplement and incorporate any other agreements you may have with Vanguard.

In the event of any objection between these Terms of Use and any other agreements you have with Vanguard (“Other Agreements”), such other agreements shall take precedence. Notes. The products and services made available to you through this site may include the electronic transfer of information you provide to us, including through any email address you provide to us, which you consider to be personal financial information or promotional and marketing materials, and you agree to such transmission. . . .

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